In 2016, we surveyed individuals in charge of European PhD programs from 105 institutions. 2016;21:120–8. Gopalakrishnan S, Ganeshkumar P. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis: understanding the best evidence in primary healthcare. The pie chart presents b the percentage of the programs in which systematic reviews, in whole or in part, meet the criteria for a dissertation and c the opinion of participants about whether systematic reviews should form the basis of a publication within a PhD dissertation. This could be a cause for concern because it has been argued that any health research should begin with a SR of the literature . Olsson C, Ringner A, Borglin G. Including systematic reviews in PhD programmes and candidatures in nursing - ‘Hobson’s choice’? We received a response from 86 individuals representing 68 institutions from 37 countries (65% institutional response rate). The majority of respondents were neutral regarding the idea that scoping reviews or SRs should replace traditional narrative reviews preceding the results of clinical and basic studies in doctoral theses. Med Prim Care. Non-Cochrane SRs can also be published in high-impact journals. SRs can help improve the design of new experiments by relying on current evidence in the field and by helping to clarify which questions still need to be addressed. PubMed Google Scholar. surveyed journal editors and asked whether they consider SRs to be original studies. J Gen Intern Med. 2012;7(5):e35732. This stage forms part of a larger stage of devising the research protocol. 2013;2(1):9–14. Feinstein AR. pointed out that the main criteria to judge a SR should be its novelty and usefulness, and not whether it is original/primary or secondary research . This section covers the number of studies found, how many excluded, details of study range and characteristics, study quality, and so on. Therefore, it is unclear why somebody would consider it a problem that a SR is conducted within a team. Clearly state the criteria you will use to determine whether or … They should also be useful if you are simply wanting to conduct an advanced literature search for your undergraduate studies or postgraduate dissertation. Mahtani KR. A point-biserial correlation (SPSS, IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to measure the strength of the association between results on the knowledge test (continuous variable) and the attitude towards SRs as the basis for dissertations (dichotomous variable; we used the answer to the following question as this measure: ‘Do you agree that a systematic review, in whole or in part, meets the criteria for a publication on which a doctoral dissertation can be based?’). This research was funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, grant no. Half red and half green dots indicate the five universities with institutions that have opposite rules regarding recognition of a systematic review as a PhD thesis. Further studies in this field could provide better insight into attitudes related to SRs as graduate theses and explore interventions that can be used to change negative attitudes and improve knowledge of SRs among decision-makers in graduate education. Cochrane Croatia, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000, Split, Croatia, Department for Development, Research and Health Technology Assessment, Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare, Planinska 13, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Šoltanska 2, 21000, Split, Croatia, You can also search for this author in Most of the programs that accepted SRs as a research methodology acceptable for PhD theses had defined rules related to the use of an SR as part of a PhD thesis (Fig. Systematic reviews are not a solo effort; a team of several people is required for this type of review. The aim of this study was to analyse whether PhD theses in European biomedical graduate programs can be partly or entirely based on SRs. The survey was administered via Survey Monkey (Portland, OR, USA). Bibliographic databases including Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and Embase (for healthcare) can be used. There were more respondents than institutions because some institutions have several PhD programs and thus several program directors. Higgins JPT, Thompson SG. An aim of a systematic review is to illustrate that a thorough summary of current literature which is relevant to the student’s research has been carried out by the student. Puljak L, Sambunjak D. Cochrane systematic review as a PhD thesis: an alternative with numerous advantages. PubMed 2014;55(3):427–37. The results of the survey regarding knowledge about SR methodology indicated that the majority of respondents were not familiar with this methodology. The question should be clearly focussed, neither too narrow nor too broad. Two manuscripts were required in 30% (n = 18) and one was required in 33% (n = 20) of the programs. Check your syntax! PubMed The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the acceptance of SRs as the basis for PhD theses. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Are you ready to start your review? The Organization of PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System (ORPHEUS) includes 105 institutional members from 40 countries and six associate members from Canada, Georgia, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and the USA . Error, group does not exist! The first step is to formulate a research question. 1995;48(1):71–9. SRs have been proposed as a type of research methodology that should be acceptable as the basis for a graduate research thesis [4, 5]. Some of the questionnaires (n = 15) were only partly completed. 2008;105(20):380–3. a European PhD programs that recognise a systematic review as a PhD thesis (green dot) and those that do not (red dot). In the last question, the participants’ knowledge about SR methodology was examined using nine statements; participants had to rate each statement as either ‘correct’, ‘incorrect’, ‘unsure’ or ‘I don’t know’. Methodology and potential bias might also be listed. A systematic review requires a considerable amount of time and resources, and is one type of literature review. Four respondents from three institutions indicated that empty SRs are accepted as a PhD thesis. Conducting a systematic review is a recognized research method for dissertation work in some disciplines. At the very least, the authors of manuscripts within a PhD will include the PhD candidate and a mentor, which is a team in and of itself. Choosing the features of study design to review and critique is dependent on the of methodological considerations in animal studies, adapted from CAMARADES, is listed in Box 1. The graduate program and the mentor need to ensure that a PhD candidate receives sufficient knowledge to complete the proposed thesis topic. Systematic reviews have become popular over the last 20 years or so, particularly in health and healthcare related areas. Systematic reviews (SRs) have been proposed as a type of research methodology that should be acceptable for a graduate research thesis. (ID: 2), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK56167/, http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_64047_en.pdf, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/pdf/articles/what_is_a_systematic_review_external.pdf, Emergence Of Artificial Intelligence In Writing Industry. The findings of the studies are summarised, and conclusions indicated. Such tables typically include the population studied, interventions and outcomes. The systematic review with meta-analysis is at the top of the pyramid of evidence in therapeutic interventions. Ann Intern Med. This study may not be generalisable to different PhD programs worldwide that were not surveyed. Each tip looks at a different stage of the review process. They provide reliable estimates about the effects of interventions. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0653-x. (PDF 293 kb). Data analysis is the next stage. It should end with a summary statement of the aims, The methodology should follow a clear structure, looking at inclusion/exclusion characteristics, how studies were indentified, how studies included were handled, data extraction and quality assessment, The results section covers how the data was handled (including any statistical analysis). Doing a Systematic Review by Rumona Dickson; Angela Boland; M. Gemma Cherry (Editor) Great book for Masters or a PhD students conducting a systematic review for your dissertation or thesis. WritePass - Essay Writing - Dissertation Topics [TOC]. The majority of participants were not familiar with basic concepts related to SRs; questions about meta-analyses and the type of plots frequently used in SRs were correctly answered by only one third of the participants. Like all educational researchers, systematic reviewers also have an obligation to disclose any sources of funding and potential conflicts of interest … Refers to any combination of methods where one significant component is a literature review (usually systematic). Both authors participated in the study design, data collection and analysis and writing of the manuscript, and both read and approved the final manuscript. This can be done through a computer based reference management system such as EndNote. Article Article 2007;7:10. 2015) which are useful guidelines to improve the transparency of the process in systematic reviews. volume 6, Article number: 253 (2017) Research that is not necessary harms both the public and patients, because funds are not invested where they are really necessary, and necessary research may not be conducted . Ten Ham-Baloyi W, Jordan P. systematic review ) research Proposal ( systematic review is type! Of included studies and systematic review dissertation available data for numerical analyses, word limits and citations descriptively evaluate the studies rejected!, particularly in health and healthcare related areas writepass - Essay writing systematic. Within one institution, we asked for participation of one senior person per program, order... Are useful guidelines to improve the transparency of the University of Split School of medicine approved the study for! 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