Energy As this book is on Solar Energy, it is good to start the discussion with some general thoughts on Energy. A hot carrier solar cell is a device that would increase the efficiency of solar cells by more than 20%, which Sellers said would be a significant breakthrough for solar energy. Basic Steps in Solar Energy Generation and Transmission Sunlight hits the solar panels, and creates an electric field. Physics Of Solar Cells. Solar Energy - Basic Principles Solar energy is a natural form of energy that is produced from the powerful heat and light derived from the sun. Solar energy is the technology used to harness the sun's energy and make it useable. Physics of Solar Cells From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts 2nd, updated and expanded edition Problems and Solutions by Uli Würfel WILEY-VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA . A01_MAZU0862_02_SE_FM.indd 3 25/01/20 12:22 PM. This new system absorbs more They can also be used to power devices such as calculators and watches. Solar radiation. The net solar radiation which is incident on the surface of the earth is much more than what the world currently needs to meet its energy requirement. They work on the principle of the photovoltaic effect. He has, developed insights in the electronic processes in hybrid, organic–inorganic solar cells, combining the novel. Embraces concepts from nanostructured and highly disordered materials to lead halide perovskite solar cells. His most well-known work is about the, mechanisms governing the operation of nanostructured, and solution-processed thin film solar cells. When light reaches the p-n junction, the light photons can easily enter in the junction, through very thin p-type layer.The light energy, in the form of photons, supplies sufficient energy to the junction to create a number of electron-hole pairs. The two major types of solar energy that make it to Earth are heat and light. In this section, we will learn about the photovoltaic cell, their advantages, and disadvantages. Skip to main content. With population explosions and the demands of modern lifestyles, the world’s need for energy production has become far too much for fossil fuels to keep up with. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. The nuclear reaction releases energy that travels outward to the surface of the Sun. New concepts have emerged forming a rather powerful picture embracing the mechanisms and limitation to efficiencies of different types of devices. Solar Energy: The Energy of the Future Solar energy or solar power is the most abundant form of energy available on the earth. Only a fraction of EM radiation is visible to the human eye in the form of the color spectrum. They make use of the concept of photovoltaic effect to generate electricity. Jenny Nelson has provided a splendidly clear, concise and readable account of the basic semiconductor physics of the solar cell, complete with student exercises and solutions. Solar energy can be defined as the technology used to exploit the sun’s power and make it usable. TJ811.C54 2011 621.47--dc23 2011017534 Printed in the United States o Since a solar cell only generates about 1-2 Watts of power, it is necessary to combine them into solar power panels in order to generate more power. Debating which specific form of energy should be invested heavily in, in hope that carbon emissions and the use of coal will be reduced in the future (Clean Line, 2013). * The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Title. * In the 1830s, the British astronomer John Herschel famously used a solar thermal collector box (a device that absorbs sunlight to collect heat) to cook food during an expedition to Africa. Bisquert created nanoGe. Therefore, research companies and individuals are focusing on creating new energy systems. 21, extension 4 The physics of solar cells 2 energy (the ionization energy) to kick an electron completely out of an atom. Products > Solar Energy > Our Solar Power Spirit > About Solar Energy > Science Behind the Solar Cell : Science Behind the Solar Cell Converting Sunlight Into Electricity: Solar Cell (multicrystalline silicon) Photovoltaic modules, commonly called solar modules, are the key components used to convert sunlight into electricity. Solar Heating Principles; Solar Electricity Principles; What is Solar Energy? Peter Würfel describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. * Heat water — for use in homes, buildings, or swimming pools Along the way to the surface the energy transforms so that by the time it is released it is primarily light energy. Solar technologies are also very expensive and require a lot of land... ...Li, 1 This limitation is overcome by the use of solar cells that convert solar energy into electrical energy. Solar cells convert the sun's energy into electricity and are the main component of solar panels and many types of electrical devices as broad-ranging … Plants, animal and the microbial life have been using it as a principle energy source since the times of creation. “Photovoltaics will play an increasingly important role in a future low-carbon energy economy. The physics of solar cells. In the SunCatcher, the efficiency is around 30%, which means that 30% of the energy that … Peter Würfel describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. The energy that is provided by renewable energy resources is used in 5 important areas such as air and water cooling/heating, electricity generation, rural sector, and transportation. There is a fact, or if you wish, a law, governing all natural phenomena that are known to date. Earth receives more solar energy in an hour than we consume in an entire year. solar energy can be used to: Although fossil fuels are currently the main source of energy; solar energy may one day replace fossil fuels in the future. Physics of Solar Energy: C. Julian Chen: 9780470647806: Books - Amazon.ca. Physics of Solar Cells From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts 2nd, updated and expanded edition Problems and Solutions by Uli Würfel WILEY-VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA . But how can we copy them? Sunlight also provides vitamin D, which is necessary to human health. Working Principle of Solar Cell. Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar radiation) that reach the Earth. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. Takes a broad perspective and comprehensively addresses the fundamentals so that the reader can apply these and assess future developments and technologies in the field. Physics of solar energy / C. Julian Chen. What is Solar Energy? Solar energy is an effective improvement process that helps companies save money, reduce their energy output and enhance the environment. The fundamentals of solar energy and how its energy is extracted for power generation purposes. Preface........................................................................................................................................................................xv, Acknowledgments....................................................................................................................................................xvii, Author.......................................................................................................................................................................xix, Chapter 1 Introduction to Energy Devices...............................................................................................................1, References...............................................................................................................................................9, Chapter 2 Electrostatic and Thermodynamic Potentials of Electrons in Materials...............................................13, 2.1 Electrostatic Potential..................................................................................................................13, 2.2 Energies of Free Electrons and Holes.......................................................................................... 14, 2.3 Potential Energy of the Electrons in the Semiconductor............................................................. 17, 2.4 The Vacuum Level....................................................................................................................... 17, 2.5 The Fermi Level and the Work Function....................................................................................20, 2.6 The Chemical Potential of Electrons........................................................................................... 21, 2.7 Potential Step of a Dipole Layer or a Double Layer....................................................................23, 2.8 Origin of Surface Dipoles............................................................................................................24, 2.9 The Volta Potential......................................................................................................................25, 2.10 Equalization of Fermi Levels of Two Electronic Conductors in Contact....................................27, 2.11 Equilibration of Metal Junctions and the Contact Potential Difference......................................28, 2.12 Equilibrium across the Semiconductor Junction.........................................................................29, General References............................................................................................................................... 31, References............................................................................................................................................. 31, Chapter 3 Voltage, Capacitors, and Batteries.........................................................................................................33, 3.1 The Voltage in the Device...........................................................................................................33, 3.2 Anode and Cathode.....................................................................................................................34, 3.3 Applied Voltage and Potential Difference...................................................................................35, 3.4 The Capacitor..............................................................................................................................37, 3.5 Measurement of the Capacitance.................................................................................................38, 3.6 Energy Storage in the Capacitor..................................................................................................40, 3.7 Electrochemical Systems: Structure of the Metal/Solution Interface..........................................40, 3.8 Electrode Potential and Reference Electrodes.............................................................................42, 3.9 Redox Potential in Electrochemical Cells...................................................................................44, 3.10 Electrochemical and Physical Scales of Electron Energy in Material Systems..........................45, 3.11 Changes of Electrolyte Levels with pH.......................................................................................46, 3.12 Principles of Electrochemical Batteries.......................................................................................47, 3.13 Capacity and Energy Content......................................................................................................50, 3.14 Practical Electrochemical Batteries............................................................................................. 51, 3.14.1 Zinc-Silver Battery.......................................................................................................... 51, 3.14.2 Sodium-Sulfur Battery....................................................................................................52, 3.15 Li-Ion Battery.............................................................................................................................. 53, General References...............................................................................................................................57, References.............................................................................................................................................57, Chapter 4 Work Functions and Injection Barriers.................................................................................................59, 4.1 Injection to Vacuum in Thermionic Emission.............................................................................59, 4.2 Richardson–Dushman Equation..................................................................................................60, 4.3 Kelvin Probe Method.................................................................................................................. 61, 4.4 Photoelectron Emission Spectroscopy.........................................................................................63, 4.5 Injection Barriers.........................................................................................................................66, 4.6 Pinning of the Fermi Level and Charge-Neutrality Level...........................................................69, General References...............................................................................................................................73, References.............................................................................................................................................73, Chapter 5 Thermal Distribution of Electrons, Holes, and Ions in Solids............................................................... 75, 5.1 Equilibration of the Electrochemical Potential of Electrons....................................................... 75, 5.2 Configurational Entropy of Weakly Interacting Particles...........................................................76, 5.3 Equilibrium Occupancy of Conduction Band and Valence Band States.....................................76, 5.4 Equilibrium Fermi Level and the Carrier Number in Semiconductors.......................................79, 5.5 Transparent Conducting Oxides.................................................................................................. 81, 5.6 Hot Electrons...............................................................................................................................82, 5.7 Screening.....................................................................................................................................84, 5.8 The Rectifier at Forward and Reverse Voltage............................................................................85, 5.9 Semiconductor Devices as Thermal Machines that Realize Useful Work..................................88, 5.10 Cell Potential in the Lithium Ion Battery....................................................................................90, 5.11 Insertion of Ions: The Lattice Gas Model....................................................................................94, General References...............................................................................................................................98, References.............................................................................................................................................98, Chapter 6 Interfacial Kinetics and Hopping Transitions...................................................................................... 101, 6.1 Principle of Detailed Balance.................................................................................................... 101, 6.2 Form of the Transition Rates.....................................................................................................104, 6.3 Kinetics of Localized States: Shockley-Read-Hall Recombination Model...............................106, 6.4 Reorganization Effects in Charge Transfer: The Marcus Model............................................... 107, 6.5 Polaron Hopping........................................................................................................................ 112, 6.6 Rate of Electrode Reaction: Butler-Volmer Equation................................................................ 115, 6.6.1 Availability of Electronic Species................................................................................. 116, 6.6.2 Availability of Redox Species........................................................................................ 116, 6.6.3 The Kinetic Constant for Charge Transfer.................................................................... 117, 6.7 Electron Transfer at Metal-Semiconductor Contact..................................................................120, 6.8 Electron Transfer at the Semiconductor/Electrolyte Interface.................................................. 121, General References.............................................................................................................................126, References...........................................................................................................................................127, Chapter 7 The Chemical Capacitance.................................................................................................................. 131, 7.1 Carrier Accumulation and Energy Storage in the Chemical Capacitance................................. 131, 7.2 Localized Electronic States in Disordered Materials and Surface States................................. 133, 7.3 Chemical Capacitance of a Single State.................................................................................... 135, 7.4 Chemical Capacitance of a Broad DOS.................................................................................... 136, 7.5 Filling a DOS with Carriers: The Voltage and the Conductivity.............................................. 138, 7.6 Chemical Capacitance of Li Intercalation Materials................................................................. 139, 7.7 Chemical Capacitance of Graphene.......................................................................................... 140, General References............................................................................................................................. 142, References........................................................................................................................................... 143, Chapter 8 The Density of States in Disordered Inorganic and Organic Conductors........................................... 145, 8.1 Capacitive and Reactive Current in Cyclic Voltammetry.......................................................... 145, 8.2 Kinetic Effects in CV Response................................................................................................ 149, 8.3 The Exponential DOS in Amorphous Semiconductors.............................................................150, 8.4 The Exponential DOS in Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides.......................................................... 152, 8.5 Basic Properties of Organic Layers........................................................................................... 156, 8.6 The Gaussian DOS.................................................................................................................... 160, General References............................................................................................................................. 162, References........................................................................................................................................... 163, Chapter 9 Planar and Nanostructured Semiconductor Junctions......................................................................... 167, 9.1 Structure of the Schottky Barrier at a Metal/Semiconductor Contacts..................................... 167, 9.2 Changes of the Schottky Barrier by the Applied Voltage.......................................................... 168, 9.3 Properties of the Planar Depletion Layer.................................................................................. 170, 9.4 Mott–Schottky Plots.................................................................................................................. 171, 9.5 Capacitance Response of Defect Levels and Surface States..................................................... 172, 9.6 Semiconductor Electrodes and the Flatband Potential.............................................................. 173, 9.7 Changes of Redox Level and Band Unpinning.......................................................................... 176, 9.8 Inversion and Accumulation Layer............................................................................................ 180, 9.9 Heterojunctions.......................................................................................................................... 181, 9.10 Effect of Voltage on Highly Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors...................................... 183, 9.11 Homogeneous Carrier Accumulation in Low-Doped Nanocrystalline Semiconductors........... 188, General References............................................................................................................................. 192, References........................................................................................................................................... 192, Chapter 10 Carrier Injection and Drift Transport.................................................................................................. 197, 10.1 Transport by Drift in the Electrical Field.................................................................................. 197, 10.2 Injection at Contacts.................................................................................................................. 198, 10.3 The Metal-Insulator-Metal Model.............................................................................................202, 10.4 The Time-of-Flight Method......................................................................................................205, General References.............................................................................................................................206, References...........................................................................................................................................206, Chapter 11 Diffusion Transport.............................................................................................................................209, 11.1 Diffusion in the Random Walk Model......................................................................................209, 11.2 Macroscopic Diffusion Equation............................................................................................... 211, 11.3 The Diffusion Length................................................................................................................ 212, 11.4 Chemical Diffusion Coefficient and the Thermodynamic Factor............................................. 213, General References............................................................................................................................. 215, References........................................................................................................................................... 215, Chapter 12 Drift-Diffusion Transport.................................................................................................................... 217, 12.1 General Transport Equation in Terms of Electrochemical Potential......................................... 217, 12.2 The Transport Resistance.......................................................................................................... 217, 12.3 The Einstein Relation................................................................................................................ 219, 12.4 Drift-Diffusion Equations..........................................................................................................220, 12.5 Ambipolar Diffusion Transport................................................................................................221, 12.6 Relaxation of Injected Charge..................................................................................................222, 12.7 Transient Current in Insulator Layers.......................................................................................223, 12.8 Modeling Transport Problems..................................................................................................224, General References.............................................................................................................................227, References...........................................................................................................................................227, Chapter 13 Transport in Disordered Media...........................................................................................................229, 13.1 Multiple Trapping and Hopping Transport...............................................................................229, 13.2 Transport by Hopping in a Single Level...................................................................................231, 13.3 Trapping Factors in the Kinetic Constants...............................................................................233, 13.4 Two-Level (Single-Trap) Model................................................................................................235, 13.5 Multiple Trapping in Exponential DOS....................................................................................237, 13.6 Activated Transport in a Gaussian DOS...................................................................................237, 13.7 Multiple Trapping in the Time Domain....................................................................................239, 13.8 Hopping Conductivity...............................................................................................................241, 13.9 The Transport Energy...............................................................................................................242, 13.10 Variable Range Hopping...........................................................................................................243, General References.............................................................................................................................245, References...........................................................................................................................................245, Chapter 14 Thin Film Transistors..........................................................................................................................249, 14.1 Organic Thin Film Transistors.................................................................................................249, 14.2 Carrier Density in the Channel.................................................................................................250, 14.3 Determination of the DOS in Thin Film Transistor Configuration..........................................252, 14.4 Current-Voltage Characteristics................................................................................................255, 14.5 The Mobility in Disordered Semiconductors............................................................................257, 14.6 Electrochemical Transistor.......................................................................................................258, General References.............................................................................................................................259, References...........................................................................................................................................259, Chapter 15 Space-Charge-Limited Transport........................................................................................................263, 15.1 Space-Charge-Limited Current................................................................................................263, 15.2 Injected Carrier Capacitance in SCLC.....................................................................................265, 15.3 Space Charge in Double Injection............................................................................................267, General References.............................................................................................................................269, References...........................................................................................................................................269, Chapter 16 Impedance and Capacitance Spectroscopies....................................................................................... 271, 16.1 Frequency Domain Measurements...........................................................................................271, 16.2 Dielectric Relaxation Functions................................................................................................272, 16.3 Resistance and Capacitance in Equivalent Circuit Models.......................................................274, 16.4 Relaxation in Time Domain......................................................................................................279, 16.5 Universal Properties of the Frequency-Dependent Conductivity..............................................281, 16.6 Electrode Polarization...............................................................................................................283, General References.............................................................................................................................284, References...........................................................................................................................................284, PART III Radiation, Light, and Semiconductors, Chapter 17 Blackbody Radiation and Light...........................................................................................................289, 17.1 Photons and Light......................................................................................................................289, 17.2 Spread and Direction of Radiation............................................................................................289, 17.3 Color and Photometry................................................................................................................ 291, 17.4 Blackbody Radiation.................................................................................................................293, 17.5 The Planck Spectrum................................................................................................................294, 17.6 The Energy Density of The Distribution of Photons in Blackbody Radiation..........................295, 17.7 The Photon and Energy Fluxes in Blackbody Radiation...........................................................297, 17.8 The Solar Spectrum...................................................................................................................299, General References.............................................................................................................................302, References...........................................................................................................................................302, Chapter 18 Light Absorption, Carrier Recombination, and Luminescence...........................................................305, 18.1 Absorption of Incident Radiation..............................................................................................305, 18.2 Luminescence and Energy Transfer..........................................................................................307, 18.3 The Quantum Efficiency........................................................................................................... 310, 18.4 The Recombination of Carriers in Semiconductors.................................................................. 311, 18.5 Recombination Lifetime............................................................................................................ 314, General References............................................................................................................................. 316, References........................................................................................................................................... 316, Chapter 19 Optical Transitions in Organic and Inorganic Semiconductors.......................................................... 319, 19.1 Light Absorption in Inorganic Solids........................................................................................ 319, 19.2 Free Carrier Phenomena............................................................................................................323, 19.3 Excitons.....................................................................................................................................325, 19.4 Quantum Dots...........................................................................................................................328, 19.5 Organic Molecules and Materials..............................................................................................330, 19.6 The CT Band in Organic Blends and Heterojunctions.............................................................. 333, General References............................................................................................................................. 336, References........................................................................................................................................... 336, PART IV Photovoltaic Principles and Solar Energy Conversion, Chapter 20 Fundamental Model of a Solar Cell....................................................................................................343, 20.1 Majority Carrier Injection Mechanisms....................................................................................343, 20.2 Majority Carrier Devices...........................................................................................................344, 20.3 Minority Carrier Devices..........................................................................................................345, 20.4 Fundamental Properties of a Solar Cell.....................................................................................346, 20.5 Physical Properties of Selective Contacts in Solar Cells...........................................................348, General References............................................................................................................................. 351, References........................................................................................................................................... 351, Chapter 21 Recombination Current in the Semiconductor Diode......................................................................... 353, 21.1 Dark Equilibrium of Absorption and Emission of Radiation.................................................... 353, 21.2 Recombination Current............................................................................................................. 355, 21.3 Dark Characteristics of Diode Equation.................................................................................... 356, 21.4 Light-Emitting Diodes............................................................................................................... 357, 21.5 Dye Sensitization and Molecular Diodes...................................................................................360, General References.............................................................................................................................363, References...........................................................................................................................................363, Chapter 22 Radiative Equilibrium in a Semiconductor.........................................................................................365, 22.1 Utilization of Solar Photons......................................................................................................365, 22.2 Fundamental Radiative Carrier Lifetime..................................................................................368, 22.3 Radiative Emission of a Semiconductor Layer..........................................................................369, 22.4 Photons at Nonzero Chemical Potential.................................................................................... 370, General References............................................................................................................................. 373, References........................................................................................................................................... 373, Chapter 23 Reciprocity Relations in Solar Cells and Fundamental Limits to the Photovoltage ........................... 375, 23.1 The Reciprocity between LED and Photovoltaic Performance Parameters.............................. 375, 23.2 Factors Determining the Photovoltage...................................................................................... 378, 23.3 External Radiative Efficiency....................................................................................................382, 23.4 Photon Recycling.......................................................................................................................383, 23.5 Radiative Cooling in EL and Photoluminescence.....................................................................386, 23.6 Reciprocity of Absorption and Emission in a CT Band............................................................387, General References............................................................................................................................. 391, References...........................................................................................................................................392, Chapter 24 Charge Separation and Material Limits to the Photovoltage...............................................................395, 24.1 Light Absorption........................................................................................................................395, 24.2 Charge Separation.....................................................................................................................395, 24.3 Materials Limits to the Photovoltage.........................................................................................398, General References.............................................................................................................................403, References...........................................................................................................................................404, Chapter 25 Operation of Solar Cells and Fundamental Limits to Their Performance..........................................407, 25.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics.................................................................................................407, 25.2 Power Conversion Efficiency.....................................................................................................408, 25.3 Analysis of FF........................................................................................................................... 410, 25.4 Shockley–Queisser Efficiency Limits........................................................................................ 412, 25.5 Practical Solar Cells Efficiency Limits...................................................................................... 413, General References............................................................................................................................. 419, References........................................................................................................................................... 419, Chapter 26 Charge Collection in Solar Cells......................................................................................................... 421, 26.1 Introduction to Charge Collection Properties............................................................................ 421, 26.2 Charge Collection Distance.......................................................................................................422, 26.3 General Modeling Equations.....................................................................................................424, 26.4 The Boundary Conditions.........................................................................................................425, 26.4.1 Charge Extraction Boundary Condition........................................................................426, 26.4.2 Blocking Boundary Condition.......................................................................................427, 26.4.3 Generalized Boundary Conditions................................................................................428, 26.5 A Photovoltaic Model with Diffusion and Recombination........................................................429, 26.6 The Gärtner Model.................................................................................................................... 433, 26.7 Diffusion-Recombination and Collection in the Space-Charge Region.................................... 435, 26.8 Solar Cell Simulation................................................................................................................. 436, 26.9 Classification of Solar Cells....................................................................................................... 437, 26.10 Measuring and Reporting Solar Cell Efficiencies..................................................................... 439, General References.............................................................................................................................442, References...........................................................................................................................................442, Chapter 27 Spectral Harvesting and Photoelectrochemical Conversion................................................................445, 27.1 Conversion of Photon Frequencies for Solar Energy Harvesting..............................................445, 27.2 Tandem Solar Cells....................................................................................................................448, 27.3 Solar Fuel Generation................................................................................................................450, General References.............................................................................................................................456, References...........................................................................................................................................456, Appendix................................................................................................................................................................. 459, Index........................................................................................................................................................................463, conductors, and solar fuel converters based on, visible light and semiconductors for water splitting and, CO2 reduction. 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